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Personal Bankruptcy – Not Something To Be Anxious About

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Several thousands of Americans file personal bankruptcy even when they have better options available to them. A bankruptcy can stay with you for your life. Bankruptcy lawyers and counselors tell you that bankruptcy gives honest debtors a fresh start. Keep in mind, the fresh start is a costly restart of your financial life. Avoid it if you can. If it is inevitable, you need to know your rights, limitations, and future possibilities. Chapter 7 and Chapter 13 are the two personal bankruptcy choices available to individuals. Chapter 7 is about liquidation of assets. It gives immediate relief of debts. The trustee liquidates the assets and repays the creditors. The property for which the debtor has a right is not liquidated. There is little or no nonexempt property under Chapter 7 bankruptcy cases.

Another option is Chapter 13 bankruptcy. There is no immediate discharge of debts in this type of bankruptcy. This is filed by persons who have a regular income. The debtor promises to repay the debts over three to five years. The debtor can keep his or her properties. In both cases, the creditors are not allowed to initiate any action against the debtor. Although no immediate discharges are available, this plan covers more debts than Chapter 7 personal bankruptcy does. At the end of the three to five year repayment plan period, the remaining unsecured debts are discharged. The payments are made through the trustee. However, creditors can challenge the bankruptcy filing at court.

Before Filing Personal Bankruptcy There are several provisions in effect prevent abuse of bankruptcy laws. People planning to file bankruptcy suits must first get credit counseling. Only government approved organizations can offer such counseling. The pre-bankruptcy counseling involves appraisal of individual financial situation, exploration of alternatives to bankruptcy, and preparation of a practical personal budget plan. The organization is legally required to provide free counseling, if the individual can’t pay for the services. The fee is around $50. You will also receive a certificate of completion of counseling. There is also a debtor education session, which lasts for about two hours.

Your bankruptcy plea won’t be accepted unless you furnish the certificates. About The Credit Counselor Certificates from government approved counselors are needed for filing personal bankruptcy suits. You must take into consideration the kind of services on offer. The services, fees, fee-waiver, if needed, the qualifications of the counselors, etc. are important matters to discuss. Do your research on the counselors before you sign up for their services. A credit counselor can also tell you if personal bankruptcy is the best choice you have. If bankruptcy is inevitable, they can also tell you whether to go for Chapter 7 or Chapter 13. Except in minority of cases, bankruptcies are due to the sloppy behavior of individuals. If you plan to make a fresh start with a personal bankruptcy, make sure your personal finance decisions are always wise.

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{Efforts Towards Copyright Policy in China

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Due to plagiarism and infringement of pieces of work in literature; music; drama; art; sound recording; architectural design and government work, copyright policies are much stressed upon all over the world. But some authors and publishers have been surprised by the unlawful reproduction of their copyrighted works. Big stories from famous authors were pirated by the container loads and distributed all over the world. China is facing a major issue concerning piracy perhaps because most of the books are being printed and published there. This violation of the copyright law became a very serious problem when all the books on The New York Times bestseller list were produced by a pirating publisher into thousands of copies and distributed throughout the world before the original work could come to the market. Even the United State had many such pirated copies in its own markets. China is taking desperate measures to stop this infringement on their account by burning any pirated DVDs, books or magazine that they find in their country.

It has been reported by Barbara Demick in Los Angeles Times that a large number of such alleged work was found and burnt in Beijing on a big scale. Though, it seems like a big waste of money and time at the moment, but this daring act will probably have better effects in the long run in discouraging plagiarism. The National Copyright Administration has been established in China to ensure the security of original pieces. The Government of China wants everyone around the world to know about their steps to eliminate this problem of piracy. These measures will make traders and investors around the world working with China more secure about their businesses, as their growing concern was the increasing violation of copyright law in China. This will also protect China’s local products which are often copied by other countries and are causing them a big loss.

The matter here needed quick measures as piracy was not only affecting the country’s foreign investors but also its local market. China is putting in a great effort to eliminate this menace from not only the country itself but also the rest of the world. It has joined hands with the other countries to ensure observing the copyright law better. Critics believe it is only a drop in the ocean compared to tons of pirated copies distributed all over. At least the effort has started somewhere.

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Car Accidents – How to React And What Steps to Take

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It is not desirable to get into the trap of a hit and run case and common sense says it that you should never leave an injured person unattended especially if he was injured by your vehicle or car. Car accidents are common and this is one of the reasons why injury lawyers do brisk business these days. Oftentimes it is seen that when a car accident takes place, individuals involved in the accident go into a state of panic. But during that moment there are few aspects that need to be addressed without fail and every attention should be paid to these details.

The Dos after a car accident are enumerated below. Paying heed to the same can help you immensely should you need any assistance in future. Before you take any other action, make sure you seek medical assistance the police if you have snapshots of property damage, injuries, the element that has caused the injury or rather the causative agent, scene where the incident took place and from all possible your attorney at the earliest or still better if you have an injury lawyer known to youContact the insurance companies if you have to make claims related to homeowners’ insurance, health insurance, or automobile the event you were injured by someone else’s car, make sure you take the name and address of the owner of the there were many witnesses around take the names, addresses, contact information of down the car plate number and if possible the driving license number of the person who hit you. When a car accident takes place, there are few things that you must avoid by all means. These are also enumerated below.

Take a look at the points and make sure you abide by the same. It is desirable that you do not shift your vehicle after the accident has taken place. If you do so, you are changing the scene of the accident and that may not work for you if you have insurance claim to you have been injured do not move in a direction or in any place where you may be injured once sure you do not leave the site of the car accident unless you are asked by the police to do ‘t destroy or tamper with any evidence at the site of the you have been injured in fire, move away from the place to a safer area but do not leave the accident site.Avoid comments and talks that can have an adverse effect on the accident and in the process ruin your chances of getting the compensation.Unless you have talked to the injury lawyer, it is best not to negotiate anything with the one who has injured you or the one whom you have injured. It may send wrong signals to the insurance companies. Bio: Aaron Sanchez has shared his expert vision and years of experience as an injury lawyer, in this article. His articles have been shared across numerous law forums and magazines. These articles have certainly thrown some light over areas like dealing with a car accident.

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The IP Piracy Menace of India

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Today we have easy access to software products in the market with just a single degree of separation between the producer and the consumer. On one hand, it has opened up new vistas for software developers, content producers and publishers; but on the other it has created a host of new problems, foremost among them being counterfeiting and piracy. Software being one of the most valuable assets of an organization, its illegal reproduction and distribution has significant implications on the industry. An IDC study reveals that 35% of all PCs software installed in 2006 worldwide was illegal, pegging global losses to a whopping $40 billion. This is compounded by the fact that there is lack of awareness about the intricacies of software piracy and most mistake it to being restricted to software getting corrupt.

Additionally, a circulating myth about pirated software usage is that only the original purchaser is in infringement, and subsequent users are not bound to any contract. It is yet to be realised that acceptance of the licensing agreement before installation is sufficient to create a contract between the copyright holder and the end user. Some softwares would stipulate a binding license contract if the box containing the CD is manually open. The biggest risk due to the usage of pirated software is the overall security threat to an organizations’ IT infrastructure. In addition to regular system break-downs, pirated software installations are notorious for receiving limited updates and security patches, making the system extremely vulnerable to external security attacks like malicious code, phishing and spam. This does not include the cost of potential loss of proprietary information due to such unauthorized software installations.

The cost to organizations from a single pirated software installation runs into thousands of dollars and the data loss due to such malicious installations can run into thousands of dollars. It is learnt that in India alone, around $566 million was lost in 2005 due to piracy. Eventually, as it may turn out to be, the payback of using pirated software would far exceed the price of purchasing licensed software. Awareness & Enforcement are Key to Combating Piracy Awareness is an important tool to counter the epidemic of piracy; the other being law enforcement and industry efforts.

Increasing awareness about the economic implications of piracy among end-users is essential, considering the huge influx of new users in emerging markets. We have stringent laws for Intellectual Property protection, but the challenge is the effective enforcement of the prescribed laws. In a software piracy case, the crime has to be identified, reported and action against it has to be taken immediately. In order to spread awareness the government has set up collective administrative societies which organizes seminars and workshops. Handbooks of Copyright law are also circulated free-of-cost amongst public, police, enforcement agencies and officials. Additionally, modules of copyright infringement have been introduced in the training program at national academies and colleges. Special cells for copyright enforcement have been created in almost all states; many of them being implemented on Public Private Partnership (PPP) model with industry leaders.

Further, according to law, any police officer having the requisite rank may conduct search and seizure operations as well as effect arrests without the lodging of any formal complaint. The Government is also making relentless efforts to encourage the use of legitimate software within its own departments; and put its weight behind the industry and enforcement policies.

Software companies eyeing overseas markets will require proving their ability to maintain adequate security levels. Security is not just a mere statutory requirement but an important factor to compete globally. Software giants on their part are engaging students, academicians and Government bodies to educate them about piracy and help safeguard their data against any threats. For individuals, who get affected by piracy the most, software companies offer programs like Digital Rights Management technology, which allows copyright holders to manage and restrict usage of digital media and devices. In Conclusion It is difficult to tap the problem at its root of origin due to lack of a fool-proof way of tracking pirated software makers. Hence, continuous efforts are to be made to do away with the channel of distribution of such software by deterring people from selling it. The media is the most dynamic tool that is being aggressively used to spread awareness through advertisements, hoardings, news articles, television programs and celebrity appeals. As India increasingly caters to global clients, it becomes imperative that we continue to adopt world class information security standards and project a better image of the country in the global marketplace.

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Wrongful Death Attorneys in Florida

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Any injury to a person resulting in death that is inflicted by someone intentionally or due to negligence is a wrongful death. To help the family members left by the decedent, the United States Government has formed a statute according to which the person responsible for someone’s death can be brought in a civil court and made to pay the damages the victim’s family has incurred. To book the culprit, determining the cause of death is important. Thorough investigation is needed to find out if the death is because of a wrong conduct or negligence by someone. If you are living in Florida and have lost a family member, you can file a wrongful death lawsuit against the responsible person for compensation or recovering damages. In this case, wrongful death attorneys in Florida will help you to get justice in less time and expenses.

The statutes relating to wrongful death are different in all the states of America. If you are filing a lawsuit in Florida, you will need legal advice and service of wrongful death attorneys. These attorneys will help you in finding out the wrongful death causes. Mostly, it is the family members who are badly affected by the death of the deceased that fight the wrongful death cases. The wrongful death cases in Florida happen due to a deliberate intention or negligence in medical treatment, accidental death due to a technical problem, attacking someone with an intention to kill, exposing someone to danger without applying safety measures to get a work done, and while supervising work operations on site. When you approach to a wrongful death attorney in Florida, he/she will study the magnitude of the damages in monetary terms. If the deceased was the only earning member in the family, then they will calculate how much the deceased would have earned during the employment period had he/she been alive. They will also look at the problems the left-behind family members are subjected to, especially education of children.

Furthermore, determining the expenses incurred for the medical treatment and for the funeral is also necessary for filing the suit. The court also makes the responsible person to pay interest to the beneficiary party for the expenses from the death of the deceased ( click here to known in details about wrongful death). If the death is caused by some cruel act, the court will provide justice for the victim’s family by punishing the person with a few years of rigorous imprisonment. The law has the provision to deal with punitive damages to console the decedent’s family, and discouraged others from indulging in cruel acts. The Florida wrongful death attorneys will guide you whether the negligence committed is punishable, other than paying money for the damages. To file a wrongful death lawsuit, you must know the time limit the law permits you. If you have crossed the time limit, the offender cannot be booked even if he/she has been guilty of the act. The Florida court accepts the case if you have filed in within two years from the date of death.

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Validity Search – What Patent Holders Should do to Defend Their Patents.

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The validity search is a specific type of patent novelty search. The former is conducted to make sure that the patent was validly granted to the patent holder. This process can be extremely complicated and is not as simple as placing keywords in a patent search engine box and then getting an answer to pop out. Since it is a process, there are vital steps to consider along the way. Here are some of the steps you must look into with this patent related search that usually comes sometime after a novelty search has been performed. First, you have to prove that your product is patentable. This is where the role of novelty search comes in. In this process, there are three prerequisites to consider.

You have to prove that the product is novel or original and also that it has not been sold or published in the market for over a year. In line with this, you have to assert that your product is useful enough to carry its functions and to serve its purpose for the end users. Finally you have to show that your invention is not an obvious improvement over an existing product or invention To prove all these points, a patent novelty search will also be necessary. A validity search should support the decision made in a novelty search. To be able to do that, this search should be conducted regardless of how certain you are with the patentability of your soon-to-be launched product or service. By doing so, you will be able to strengthen your invention at the same time get a less complicated patent application process.

This will also help you get rid of possible litigation attacks and validity questions as to your product or service. If someone else questions the validity of your patent claim, the validity search will also serve its purpose. If another party claims invalidity of the patent granted to you, they will do everything to prove that your patent is really invalid. This may then result in issues that will lead to a court trial and patent investigation needing to be performed. On your part as the patent holder, you should disprove these claims as your opponents assert their invalidity issues on your patented technology. Be ready to defend yourself by hiring assistance from IP attorneys or paralegals. In cases when your patent is copied by another party, you may use the validity search to support your patent infringement claims.

This will be crucial for you to prove that the plaintiff indeed copied your patented technology. Remember that the patent search may also be used by someone who is seeking a patent license from your existing product. This is for these future patentees to lower down the minimal royalty payments you require from them. Therefore, you have to make your necessary steps to contest these future problems. A validity search therefore is not just done in order to support a novelty search. It can be used in a number of ways by you as patent holders. This patent-related search is crucial for you to disprove invalidity claims made by other persons who want to claim the patent license already granted to you. At some points, you may also make use of it in support for patent infringement searches. If you want to receive royalty payments due to you from those whom you are granting your patent’s license, this type of search also be of great help.

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Copyright Infringement Litigation

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The field of intellectual property is full of organizations and people who are now living in the color of gray. Attorneys for the plaintiff assert Ip rights regarding their potential customers. Attorneys for defendants debate that no rational property rights exist or that their customers aren’t infringing on individuals rights. In the field of copyright law, the stress between those asserting privileges and those protecting is ever present. Attorneys for copyright owners register copyrights using the U.S. Copyright laws Office with respect to clients. They help their customers understand how to effectively acquire original works registered so they can provide enforcement and leverage. In reality, you can’t sue in federal court in most instances unless your copyrights are authorized with the U.S. Copyright Office.

A good copyright lawyer will then monitor the net for possible violation. When an infringer is determined, lawyers will send out copyright violation threat letters to alleged violators asserting ownership privileges. Because of these you must know about copyright infringement litigation. Exactly how copyright infringement litigation will help: About the defense side, a primary report on the copyright users will decide if the registration leverage exists. Obviously, typical law copyrights may also be asserted. The lawyer will compare the alleged copyright because of their clients allegedly infringing work and provide an evaluation of regardless of whether there is a high-risk of liability.

If the copyright is registered, there’s a potential additional legal responsibility of $150,000.00 plus attorneys’ costs in governmental damages for bad faith infringement. The chance of governmental damages under copyright law is usually one of the most important issues the attorney will concentrate on. One commonly overlooked choice for both plaintiffs and defendants is to have your lawyer file a declaratory judgment action in government court. A declaratory judgment action asks the court to declare privileges between the parties; as an example, if copyright ownership is available or whether there’s infringement.

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Copywriting in Malaysia is Growing at Larger Scale

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Copywriter is the person used to write text and provide information about different products. They simply advertise for the particular product. They do write for television, newspaper, radio, and web page design Malaysia and other broadcasting channeling the world of advertisement copywriters are required ion large basis. This career is having such a potential growth. For copywriters copywriting Malaysia keeps importance as web page design Malaysia provides growth to copywriters. Web page design Malaysia provides good amount to copywriters and annual salary of copywriters comes around $35,000 to $40, is starting salary annually gradually as the experience increases the salary increases there. It comes around $100, 00 per year. And if they used to promote the copywriter as the chief the salary would be $125,000.working hours of copywriter is 40 hours in a week. Overtime can be done by copywriters to earn extra money. During sales season and holidays the workload of copywriter increases. Copywriting requires writing skill so that writing advertisement becomes easier task and one can write about any product on his own words and in an effective way. Once you will be practiced this skill you can easily complete your daily task on time. Your speed of typing will increase day by day. The strategies used in Malaysia are really helpful for copywriters over there. Before start the copywriting you need to know about the thing you are provided to write on. Copywriting is not an easy task but it can be smooth if you follow some basic instructions regarding it. before start the copywriting collect the material on that product for which you are writing out .if you will do research properly then it will give attractive look to your copywriting. You can say it as a key. In order to present an attractive copy to client research is necessary. Make your copy interesting and thoughtful. In copywriting Malaysia is the name which comes in light. Malaysia copywriters are very professional. When you do work of copywriting Malaysia you must have to provide rich content in your copy. For this you can ask to your clients to provide information regarding topic provided to you by web redesign Malaysia. There are some things that you must ask to your client for better research and writing. They are data sheet past promotions sample products, copies of speeches, newsletters, scripts of film and videotapes, press releases, package copy like label and boxes, product specifications, market research reports and so on. After getting all these content provided by web redesign Malaysia use this information fully. Read it properly and highlight with marker .better to have yellow marker and after taking knowledge about the product write your highlighted points in your own way on your laptop and pc. Gathering of material will make your work easier and without taking too much time you can complete your work within time limit. Once you will be habitual of writing you would not have to face problem and before your time over you will done with your task. Just follow these instructions given by web redesign Malaysia and give an attraction to your writing skill to impress your client.

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Why People Always Choose Arbitration Over Litigation In Saudi Arabia

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Why People Always Choose Arbitration Over Litigation In Saudi Arabia? Most people prefer arbitration to litigation in Saudi Arabia. There are several reasons for this. Understanding these reasons will help you appreciate the many benefits of arbitration Saudi Arabia and the drawbacks of litigation Saudi Arabia so that you can make an informed decision. Note that arbitration involves dispute resolution outside the traditional/formal structure of court procedure and law. Under Saudi Arabia law, this is done before Dispute Resolutions Committees. On the other hand, litigation involves taking a case before a judge. In Saudi Arabia, this is done before such Saudi Courts as the General Courts (Shari’ah), the Board of Grievances and the Supreme Court. One of the greatest benefits of arbitration Saudi Arabia over litigation is efficacy.

Cases that end up in front of an arbitration tribunal/committee in Saudi Arabia are usually resolved faster than those that are tried in court. Another element of efficacy is that the conflict is less likely to affect the relationship between the opposing parties if it is arbitrated, noting that litigation is more adversarial in nature. The members of the arbitration Saudi Arabia tribunal will be chosen by both parties, meaning there is less likelihood of one party complaining of unfairness. This is particularly important where the two warring factions are non-Saudis and Saudis. Arbitration Saudi Arabia provides unparalleled flexibility since they are less formalized. Arbitrators in Saudi Arabia take an interventionist approach and even go out of their way to find the truth. In litigations, lawyers try to prevent the truth from coming out if it is to their client’s disservice. The fact that both sides can select venue, language and seat of the arbitration is a great advantage since it means parties can pick venues and languages that they feel are most neutral and convenient to them.

Arbitration offers uniformity of law. Saudi Arabia arbitrators, like arbitrators in most parts of the world, follow the 1985 UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration and the 1976 UCITRAL Arbitration Rules. This adds to the feeling of fairness, especially where foreigners are involved. Saudi Arabia arbitrators follow the 1958 New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards. Under this convention, the awards are easier to enforce than in court judgements. Litigation Saudi Arabia translates to heavy legal costs which are sometimes unsustainable. Arbitrators have expertise and qualification to hear cases in specific fields, sometimes even more than judges. Arbitration is also advantageous in that it offers unparalleled privacy and confidentiality.

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Evading The Trap In Trap Orders

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Often the court relies on “trap” orders. What is a trap order? A trap order is imposed in order to gather evidence in litigation matters that revolve around claims based on misleading or deceptive conduct or passing off. However, in instances where one fails to give the respondent a notice about the trap dealing, the evidence might not be accepted by the court as was observed in the case of Nick Scali Limited v Super A-Mart Pty Limited [2010] FCA 1130. QUCIK FACTS A claim for passing off was initiated by Nick Scali against Super A-Mart. Nick Scali alleged that Super A-Mart breached sections 52 and 53 of the Trade Practices Act 1974 (Cth).

The court was faced with claims that related to comparative advertisements, pricing, punch lines and placards as well as oral accounts suggesting overlap and passing off of both parties’ goods. Scali wanted to present a ‘trap dealing’ as evidence before the court. However, before the commencement of the court proceedings, Scali had not notified Super A-Mart until two weeks after the initiation of these proceedings. COURT’S FINDINGS Pursuant to section 135(a) of the Evidence Act, Super A-Mart pleaded that the Court could not permit evidence of a trap dealing for which they had not received a notice thereof.

The court found reason in Scali’s argument and decided that it would be not be unfair and biased to Super A-Mart if the evidence as admitted by Scali were not allowed. However, the court warned that trap orders should always be carried out with “absolute fairness” and such trap orders must occur in such conditions that could provide the other party optimum opportunity to examine their present scenario. Lastly, the court held that if there is a failure to give a timely notice to the opposing party, then only the weight of the evidence produced is affected, not its admissibility. SUMMARY An evidence of trap dealing can be admissible in court only when they are direly required and the opposing party is notified of the same. If one does not heed to these basic principles, there is a probability that the evidence produced before the court may be dismissed. If at all such evidence is allowed, then its probative value may diminish.

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